Dr. Donald Sparks


  • B.S. Agronomy- 1975, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky
  • M.S. Soil Science-1976, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky
    M.S. Thesis – “Physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, including ammonium distribution, in the Shrouts soils of Kentucky”
  • Ph.D. Soil Science – 1979, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,Blacksburg, Virginia
    Ph.D. Dissertation – “Potassium adsorption and desorption kinetics in a soil system and its relation to plant uptake”

Current Courses


Research in the Environmental Soil Chemistry Laboratory focuses on how toxic metals such as arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) and plant nutrients such as phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) are bound (sorbed) on soils. We conduct these studies under different environmental and experimental conditions (pH, time, temperature, hydration state, presence of microbes) to best represent the natural environment. We use bright light sources generated at syncrotron facilities (associated with National Laboratories) to determine the forms (species) of the metals and nutrients in the soil at the molecular scale. This information is necessary to make accurate predictions about how easily the contaminant will leach into the water supplies, and determine its toxicity and bioavailability to plants, animals, and humans. We also conduct speciation research on metal contaminated soils and on plants that accumulate large quantities of metals (hyperaccumulators). The resuls of these studies are useful in developing effective strategies for soil remediation.

Professional Activities

    Dr. Sparks served on the Scientific Advisory Committees of the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Center for Environmental Molecular Science (EMSI) at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and the Steering Committee of the Institute of Soil and Environmental Quality (ISEQ) at the University of Delaware. Dr. Sparks has also served on several committees of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. He has consulted with a number of major industries.

  • American Society of Agronomy
  • Soil Science Society of America
  • International Union of Soil Sciences
  • American Chemical Society
  • Clay Minerals Society
  • The Geochemical Society
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Gamma Sigma Delta
  • Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society

Awards and Honors

Dr. Sparks has been the recipient of numerous awards and honors. In 1982, he was the recipient of the University of Delaware Potash Institute for his outstanding research on soil potassium. In 1985, he was recipient of the American Society of Agronomy’s Visiting Scientist Award and in 1986 he received the Research Award from the Northeastern Branch, American Society of Agronomy. In 1987, Dr. Sparks was elected Chairman of the Soil Chemistry Division (Div. S-2) of the Soil Science Society of America. In 1989, he was named a Fellow of both the American Society of Agronomy and the Soil Science Society of America, the most prestigious honors given by both societies. In 1991, he received the F.D. Chester Distinguished Performance Award from the College of Agricultural Sciences and the M.L. and Chrystie M. Jackson Soil Science Award from the Soil Science Society of America. In 1994, he was named Distinguished Professor of Soil Science, the first such professorship in the College of Agricultural Sciences at the University of Delaware. In 1994, Dr. Sparks also received the Soil Science Research Award from the Soil Science Society of America and was elected Vice-Chair (Commission II, Soil Chemistry) of the International Society of Soil Science. In 1996 Dr. Sparks was the recipient of the University of Delaware’s Francis Alison Award, which is the highest award that a faculty member can receive. The award is given for distinguished achievements in scholarship and one’s profession, teaching, dedication and service to the university, and mentoring of students. In 1997, Dr. Sparks was elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1998, he was elected President of the Soil Science Society of America and Chairman of Div. 2 (Soil Chemistry) of the International Union of Soil Sciences. In 2000, he was selected as President-Elect of the International Union of Soil Sciences, and installed as President in 2002. In 2001, he received the prestigious McMaster Fellowship from CSIRO, Australia. In 2001, he was named the T. A. Baker Professor of Plant and Soil Sciences. In 2002, he received the University of Kentucky’s Chapter of Gamma Sigma Delta Outstanding Alumnus Award, was the first recipient of the University of Delaware’s Outstanding Doctoral Graduate Student Advising and Mentoring Award, and was named S. Hallock du Pont Chair of Plant and Soil Sciences. In 2003, he received the Gold Medal for Distinguished Achievements in research from the Polish Society of Soil Science and the Environmental Quality Research Award from the American Society of Agronomy. In 2005, he was named the Sterling B. Hendricks Memorial Lecturer by NSDA-ARC. In 2007, he received distinguished alumni awards from the University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech and was named an Honorary Member of the Polish Society of Soil Science.

Recent Publications

Ono, F.B., E.S.Penido, R.Tappero, D. Sparks and L.R.G. Guilherme. 2016. Bioaccessibility of Cd and Pb in tailings from a zinc smelting in Brazil: Implications for human health. Environ Geochem Health 37:1-14.
DOI 10.1007/s10653-015-9774-0Zhao,H., M. Zhu, W. Li, E. J. Elzinga, M. Villalobos, F. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Feng, and D. L. Sparks. 2016. Redox reactions between Mn(II) and hexagonal birnessite change it’s layer symmetry. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50 (4): 1750–1758.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04436Wang, X., M. Zhu, L. K. Koopal, W. Li, W. Xu, F. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Liu,  X. Feng and D. Sparks. 2016. Effects of crystallite sizes on the structure and magnetism of ferrihydrite. Environ. Sci.: Nano 3:190–202
DOI: 10.1039/C5EN00191AMing, H., R. Naidu, B. Sarkar, D. T. Lamb, Y. Liu , M. Megharaj, D. Sparks. 2016. Competitive sorption of cadmium and zinc in contrasting soils. Geoderma 268: 60–68.
DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.01.021Chowdhury, S., N. S. Bolan, B. Seshadri, A. Kunhikrishnan, H. Wijesekara, Y. Xu, J. Yang, G.-H. Kim, D. Sparks and Cornelia Rumpel. 2016. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:7099–7110.
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5411-9

Fan, T.T, Y.-J. Wang, C.-B.. Li, J.-Z.. He, J. Gao, D. Zhou, S. P. Friedman, and D. L. Sparks. 2016. Effect of organic matter on sorption of Zn on soil: Elucidation by Wien effect measurements and EXAFS spectroscopy. Environ. Sci. Technol 50 (6) :2931–2937
DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b05281

Yang J.J., J. Wang ,W.N. Pan, T. Regier, Y.F. Hu, C. Rumpel, N. Bolan, D.L. Sparks. 2016. Retention mechanisms of citric acid in ternary kaolinite-Fe(III)-citrate acid systems using Fe K-edge EXAFS and L3,2-edge XANES spectroscopy. Scientific Reports. 6:26127.
DOI: 10.1038/srep26127

Starcher, A.N., W. Li, R. K. Kukkadapu, E. J. Elzinga and D. L. Sparks. 2016. Fe(II) sorption on pyrophyllite: Effect of structural Fe(III) (impurity) in pyrophyllite on nature of layered double hydroxide (LDH) secondary mineral formation. Chem. Geology 439:152-160.

Pan, W., J. Kan, S. Inamdar, C. Chen and D. Sparks. 2016. Dissimilatory microbial iron reduction release DOC (dissolved organic carbon) from carbon-ferrihydrite association. Soil Biol. Biochem. 103: 232 – 240.
DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.08.026

Ono, F. B., R. Tappero, R., D. Sparks and L.R.G. Guilherme. 2016. Investigation of arsenic species in tailings and windblown dust from a gold mining area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23(1):638-647.
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5304-y

Siebecker, M.G., R. L. Chaney and D. L. Sparks. 2017. Nickel speciation in several serpentine (ultramafic) topsoils via bulk synchrotron-based techniques. Geoderma 298:35-45.
DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.03.008


Contact Information
Dr. Donald Sparks

S Hallock duPont Professor, Plant & Soil Science
Professor, Chemistry & Biochemistry
Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineer

Plant and Soil Sciences
250A Harker ISE Lab

Newark, DE 19716
Phone: (302) 831-3436

Email: dlsparks@udel.edu