Genus Acanalonia Spinola, 1839

[Back to North American Acanaloniidae]

Family Acanaloniidae Amyot & Serville, 1843

Subfamily Acanaloniinae Amyot & Serville, 1843

Tribe Acanaloniini Amyot & Serville, 1843

Genus Acanalonia Spinola, 1839.

Type species: Acanalonia servillei Spinola, 1839: 448.


= Acanonia Amyot & Serville, 1843 (type species Acanalonia servillei Spinola, 1839); replacement name for Acanalonia Spinola, 1839.

= Amphiscepa Glover, 1878 [nec. Germar 1830] (type species Flata bivittata Say, 1825); syn. by Stål 1862a: 311 (genus mis-attributed to Say, 1825 by Melichar 1906: 215; see e.g., Van Duzee 1917: 750).

= Chlorochara Stål 1869: 107 (type-species Cicada vivida Fabricius, 1775), syn. by Caldwell & Martorell 1951: 261 .

Note: Chlorochara is treated as a valid genus by some authors.

Misspelling: Acalonia Kramer (1950: 10, 80)

Distribution: New World from South America (to Argentina) to southern Canada; 1 species adventive into Italy.

Acanalonia includes 19 species north of Mexico, and 71 species (and subspecies) distributed throughout the Nearctic and Neotropical regions.

Recognized species

There are 65 species plus 6 subspecies or varieties of Acanalonia as follows:

Acanalonia affinis Fowler, 1900 – Guatemala
Acanalonia albacosta Caldwell, 1947 – Mexico (Oaxaca)
Acanalonia bivittata (Say, 1825) – USA: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, PA, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV; CAN: ON
   = Acanalonia bivittata var rubescens Melichar, 1901 – USA: GA, NY, NJ, PA, DC, VA, NC, FL, OH, WI, MN, IA, KS, MO, AR, TX, AZ, IN; Canada: ON; Mexico  (note: This is a pink color variation)
Acanalonia bonducellae Fennah 1955 – Montserrat, St. Kitts
Acanalonia brevifrons Muir, 1924 – Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Croix, Anegada, Mona. (moved to Bulldolonia Gnezdilov 2012c)
Acanalonia caelata Fowler, 1900 – Guatemala
Acanalonia calida (Fowler, 1904) – Mexico
Acanalonia carinata Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 – Cuba
Acanalonia caymanensis Fennah 1971 – Cayman Is.
Acanalonia chloris Berg, 1879 – Argentina, Uruguay
Acanalonia clarionensis Van Duzee, 1933 – Clarion Island, Socorro Island (Mexico)
Acanalonia clypeata Van Duzee, 1908 – USA: AZ, CA, NV, UT
Acanalonia coacta Schmidt, 1908 – Peru, Ecuador
Acanalonia concinnula Fowler, 1900 – USA: FL, TX; Mexico (Jalisco, Guerrero)
Acanalonia consors Fennah 1971 – Cayman Is
Acanalonia conica (Say, 1830) – USA: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO, MS, NE, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, VA, TN, TX; CAN: ON; Italy
= Acanalonia panimae Fowler, 1900; Syn by Van Duzee, 1916: 82/
Acanalonia decens Stal, 1864 – Mexico (Guerrero, Vera Cruz, Nuevo León, Hildalgo), Guatemala
Acanalonia delicatula Fowler, 1900 – Panama, Uruguay (error?)
Acanalonia depressa Melichar, 1901 – St. Jean, Jost Van Dyke Island (moved to Bulldolonia Gnezdilov 2012c*)
Acanalonia dubia Fowler, 1900 – Mexico (Guanajuato, Vera Cruz, Tabasco), Guatemala, Panama
Acanalonia ecuadoriensis Schmidt, 1908 – Ecuador
Acanalonia excavata Van Duzee, 1933 – USA: FL; Nicaragua
Acanalonia fasciata Metcalf, 1923 – USA: AZ, TX, UT
Acanalonia gaumeri Fowler, 1900 – Honduras (Roatan Island)
Acanalonia grandicella Doering, 1932 – USA: AZ, CA
Acanalonia gundlachi Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 – Cuba
Acanalonia hadesensis Caldwell, 1938 – USA: TX
Acanalonia hewanorrae Fennah 1955 – St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada
Acanalonia humeralis Caldwell, 1947 – Mexico (Coahuila de Zaragoza)
Acanalonia immaculata (Kirkaldy, 1907) – USA: AZ; Mexico (Vera Cruz)
Acanalonia impressa Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 – Cuba (moved to Bulldolonia Gnezdilov 2012c)
Acanalonia inclinata Melichar, 1901 – Honduras
Acanalonia ingens Fennah 1971 – Cuba
Acanalonia insularis Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 – Isle of Pines (Cuba)
Acanalonia invenusta Doering, 1932 – USA: NM, TX
Acanalonia laticosta Doering, 1933 – USA: TX
Acanalonia laurifolia (Walker, 1858) – Brazil
Acanalonia lineata Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 – Cuba
Acanalonia mintho Fennah 1965 – Grenada
Acanalonia mollicula Van Duzee, 1914 – USA: AZ, CA, NV, UT
Acanalonia ohausi Schmidt, 1908 – Ecuador
Acanalonia ohausi var fulva Schmidt, 1908 – Ecuador
Acanalonia parva Doering, 1932 – USA: NM, TX
Acanalonia phorcys Fennah 1971 – Haiti
Acanalonia plana (Van Duzee, 1907) – Jamaica
Acanalonia planata Ball, 1933 – USA: TX
Acanalonia puella Van Duzee, 1923: Mexico
Acanalonia pumila (Van Duzee, 1908) – USA: FL, NC; Bermuda
Acanalonia robusta (Walker 1851); resurrected by Fennah 1971 – Jamaica
= Acanalonia quadrata (Walker 1851); teste Fennah 1971 – Jamaica
= Acanalonia lata (Walker 1851); teste Fennah 1971 – Jamaica
Acanalonia saltonia Ball, 1933 – USA: CA
Acanalonia servillei Spinola, 1839: 448 – USA: FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, NY, PA, SC
= Acanalonia latifrons (Walker, 1851); Syn. by Fennah, 1971: 334-336. [Not listed as new syn.]
= Acanalonia complanata (Walker, 1851); Syn. by Fennah, 1971:334-336.
Acanalonia similis Doering, 1932 – USA: NM, TX
Acanalonia sublinea (Walker, 1858) – Cuba, Dominican Republic
Acanalonia tehuacana Caldwell, 1947 – Mexico (Puebla)
Acanalonia theobromae Fennah, 1945 – Trinidad
Acanalonia tripartita Caldwell, 1947 – Mexico (San Luis Potosí)
Acanalonia umbellicauda Fennah, 1945 – Trinidad
Acanalonia umbraculata (Fabricius, 1803) – Brazil, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Bolivia, Guayana
= Acanalonia florea Stal 1862; teste Melichar 1901
Acanalonia varipennis (Walker, 1858) – Brazil
Acanalonia viequensis Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951 – Vieques Island, Antigua
Acanalonia virescens Stål, 1864 – USA: FL, TX; Mexico
Acanalonia viridicata Schmidt, 1908 – Columbia
Acanalonia viridis Melichar, 1901 – Haiti, Dominican republic
Acanalonia viriditerminata (Lethierry, 1881) – Guadeloupe, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas
Acanalonia viriditerminata muscosa Fennah 1955 – Dominica
Acanalonia viriditerminata sylvestris Fennah 1955 – Montserrat, St. Kitts
Acanalonia viridula Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 – Cuba
Acanalonia vivida (Fabricius, 1775) – Suriname, Cuba, Puerto Rico
Acanalonia vivida avivida Caldwell in Caldwell and Martorell, 1951 – Puerto Rico
Acanalonia vivida coniceps Osborn, 1929 – Puerto Rico, Caja de Muertos Island

*update on the new genus by Gnezdilov 2012 upcoming (temp. here).


Acanalonia bivittata – polyphagous
Acanalonia bonducellae Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Fleming (Fabaceae)
Acanalonia clypeataProsopis L. (Mesquite; Fabaceae), Baccharis L. (baccharis, Asteraceae), Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.(fourwing saltbush; Chenopodiaceae), Salsola tragus L. (prickly Russian thistle; Chenopodiaceae as Salsola pestifer A. Nelson)
Acanalonia conica – Polyphagous
Acanalonia hadesensisProsopis L. (Mesquite; Fabaceae)
Acanalonia impressaCinnamomum elongatum (Vahl ex Nees) Kosterm. (laurel avispillo; Lauraceae; as Phoebe elongata Vahl ex Nees ) (this species now in Bulldolonia)
Acanalonia invenustaProsopis L. (Mesquite; Fabaceae)
Acanalonia laticostaProsopis L. (Mesquite; Fabaceae), Helenium L. (sneezeweed; Asteraceae), Croton L. (croton; Euphorbiaceae), Anthemis arvensis L. (corn chamomile; Asteraceae), Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliott (goldenaster; Asteraceae), Siderocarpos flexicaulis (Benth.) Small (misspelled as Siaerocarpus flexicaula; Fabaceae)
Acanalonia pumilaBorrichia arborescens (L.) DC. (tree seaside tansy; Asteraceae), Argusia gnaphalodes (L.) Heine (sea rosemary; Boraginaceae; as Mallotonia gnaphalodes (L.) Britton); Batis maritima L. (turtleweed; Bataceae), Salicornia depressa Standl. (Virginia glasswort; Chenopodiaceae, as Salicornia virginica L), Suaeda linearis (Elliott) Moq.(annual seepweed; Chenopodiaceae)
Acanalonia servilleiCapparis comosa Jacq. (Capparaceae)
Acanalonia theobromaeTheobroma cacao L. (cacao; Sterculiaceae), Flacourtia Comm. ex L’Hér. (flacourtia; Flacourtiaceae), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. (pride-of-Barbados; Fabaceae)
Acanalonia umbellicauda Theobroma cacao L. (cacao; Sterculiaceae), Caesalpinia L. (nicker; Fabaceae), Asparagus L. (asparagus; Liliaceae)

Host data from Wilson et al. (1994); scientific names, authorship and common names from the USDA Plants database, except where absent, then try Tropicos or The Plant List). (Still working on adding links)  Thanks to Vassili Belov for deciphering the misspelling of Siderocarpos.

ALSO see list of hosts for genus on FLOW.

Economic Importance: Limited in the US, but Acanolonia conica adventive in Italy.


Similar to Issidae, with no spines on hind tibiae.  Green or pink in color.  In US, most species in southwest.

Acanalonia conica (Chester Co., AP), Photo by Dave Funk of Stroud Water Resources Center.
Acanalonia conica (Oxford, PA), Photo by Doug Tallamy, University of Delaware, Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology.

(Photographs below – except  as indicated [A. excavata, and the pink A. fasciata] – by Kimberley Shropshire, Department of Entomology, University of Delaware)


Acanalonia bivittata






Acanalonia conica (from Delaware)
Acanalonia excavata (from Florida)




Acanalonia fasciata (Arizona)

Here is another one on Flickr from Arizona State.

Acanalonia fasciata (Salvador Vitanza – Nogales, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, 31.338129, -110.962642, August 16, 2017)
Acanalonia servillei (from North Carolina)

Online resources:

Acanalonia is on bugguide here
on Discover Life here.
Hoppers of North Carolina.
Kunzweb Gallery.
American Insects.
Arizona State Flickr.

Molecular resources: GenBank has data for Acanalonia bivitatta, A. depressa, A. vivida.  Barcode of Life has sequence data for 6 species and 1 undetermined Acanalonia (viz. Acanalonia bivittata, A. chloris, A. concinnia, A. conica, A. fasciata, and A. immaculata).

Selected references:

Amyot, C. J. B. and J. G. Serville. 1843. Deuxième partie. Homoptères. Homoptera Latr. Histoire Naturelle des insectes. Hemiptères 1843: 1-676.

Bartlett, C.R., E.R. Adams and A.T. Gonzon. 2011. Planthoppers of Delaware (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea), excluding Delphacidae, with species incidence from adjacent States. ZooKeys 83: 1-42.

Bartlett, C.R., L.B. O’Brien and S.W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Caldwell, J. S. 1947b. New Acanaloniidae from Mexico. (Homoptera). Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 41: 164-165.

Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.

D’Urso, V. and M. Uliana. 2004. First record of Acanalonia conica (Issidae) in Italy. Third European Hemiptera Congress, Abstracts, St. Petersburg, Russia, 8-11 June 2004: 26-27.

d’Urso, V. and M. Uliana. 2005. Acanalonia conica (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Acanaloniidae), a Nearctic species recently introduced in Europe. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 53(1): 103–107.

Demir, E. and H. Ozdikmen. 2009. Two new replacement names for genera in Dictyopharidae and Acanaloniidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(1): 271.

Doering, K. C. 1932. The genus Acanalonia in America north of Mexico (Fulgoridae, Homoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 25: 758­786.

Fabricius, J. C. 1803a. Rhyngota. In Systema rhyngotorum: secundum ordines, genera, species: adiectis synonymis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus. C. Reichard . Brunsvigae. Vol./pp.: 1-101.

Fennah, R. G. 1945. The Fulgoroidea, or lanternflies, of Trinidad and adjacent parts of South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 95(3184): 411-520.

Fennah, R. G. 1955. Lanternflies of the Family Issidae of the Lesser Antilles (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Proceedings of the United States Museum 105(3350): 23-47.

Fennah, R. G. 1971. Fulgoroidea from the Cayman Islands and adjacent Areas. Journal of Natural History 5: 299-342.

Fowler, W. W. 1900e. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). In Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Porter . London. Vol./pp.: 1:44-48.

Fowler, W. W. 1904c. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Vol./pp.: 1: 109-124. Plate(s): 12.

Freund, R. and S. W. Wilson. 1995. The planthopper genus Acanalonia in the United States (Homoptera: Issidae) morphology of male and female external genitalia. Insecta Mundi 9:(3-4): 195-215.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012a. On the composition and distribution of the family Acanaloniidae Amyot et Serville (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea). Entomologicheskoe obozrenie 91(3): 157–161. [In Russian]

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012b. On the taxonomy of some Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera).  Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 316(3): 239–247.

Gnezdilov, V. M. 2012c. A new genus of the family Acanaloniidae (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) from the Caribbean Basin. Zoosystematica Rossica 21(2): 302-305.

Halbert, S. E., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2007. The planthopper genus Acanalonia in Florida with notes on a recently introduced species, A. excavata (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Acanaloniidae). Florida Entomologist 90(4): 690-692.

Lethierry, L. F. 1881b. Liste des Hémiptères recueillis par M. Delauney à la Guadeloupe, la Martinique et Saint-Barthelemy. Annales de la Société entomologique de Belgique. 25: 8-19.

Maryanska-Nadachowska A., V. G. Kuznetsova, V. M. Gnezdilov and Drosopoulos. 2006. Variability in the karyotypes, testes and ovaries of planthoppers of the families Issidae, Caliscelidae, and Acanaloniidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea). European Journal of Entomology 103(3): 505–513.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1923. A Key to the Fulgoridae of Eastern North America with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38(3): 139-230, plus 32 plates.

Metcalf, Z. P. 1954. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 14 Acanaloniidae. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Metcalf, Z. P. and S. C. Bruner. 1930. Cuban Fulgorina. 1. The families Tropiduchidae and Acanaloniidae. Psyche 37(4): 395-424.

Nicoli-Aldini, R., E. Mazzoni and M. Ciampitti. 2006. Ritrovamento della cicalina neartica Acanalonia conica (Say) (Rhynchota Fulgoromorpha Acanaloniidae) in Lombardia (Italia settentrionale). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura 38(3): 261-264.

Osborn, H. 1929. Notes on Porto Rican Homoptera. The Journal of the Department of Agriculture Puerto Rico 13: 81-112.

Pechuman, L. L. and A. G. Wheeler. 1981. Northern range extension of Acanalonia conica (Homoptera: Acanaloniidae). Entomological News 92: 98-100.

Say, T. 1825a. Descriptions of new hemipterous insects collected in the expedition to the Rocky Mountains, performed by order of Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under command of Major Long. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 307-345.

Say, T. 1830a. Descriptions of new North American hemipterous insects, belonging to the first family of the section Homoptera of Latreille. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 6: 235-244.

Schmidt, E. 1908b. Drei neue Acanaloniinen-Arten von Ecuador (Südamerika). (Hemiptera-Homoptera). Zoologischer Anzeiger 32: 515-518.

Spinola, M. 1839a. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 8: 133-337.

Stål, C. 1864a. Hemiptera mexicana enumeravit speciesque novas descripsit. (Continuatio). Entomologische Zeitung. Herausgegeben von dem entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin. 25:49-86.

Synave, H. 1980. Liste du materiel typique conserve dans les collections entomologiques de l’Institute Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique. Homoptera – 11-16 – Flatidae, Ricaniidae, Acanaloniidae, Eurybrachidae, Issidae, Lophopidae. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique Entomologie 52(6): 1-32.

Walker, F. 1858b. Supplement. In List of the specimens of homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. [Published by] Order of Trustees . London. Vol./pp.: 1-307.

Walker, F. 1851. List of the specimens of Homopterous Insects in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum, London. 2: 261-636, 3:637-907.

Wheeler, A. G., Jr. and E. R. Hoebeke. 1982. Host plants and nymphal descriptions of Acanalonia pumila and Cyarda sp. near acutissima (Homoptera, Fulgoroidea: Acanaloniidae and Flatidae). Florida Entomologist 65(3): 340-349.

Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1981b. Life histories of Acanalonia bivittata and A. conica with descriptions of immature stages. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 74(3): 289-298.

Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix.