Genus Flatormenis Melichar 1923
[Back to North American Flatidae]
Family Flatidae Spinola, 1839
Subfamily Flatinae Spinola, 1839
Tribe Nephesini Melichar, 1923
Genus: Flatormenis Melichar 1923.
Type species: (in original combination): Ormenis squamulosa Fowler 1900: 57.
Widespread in Nearctic and Neotropical regions (1 species currently assigned to this genus from Pakistan).
There are 14 species currently assigned to this genus:
Flatormenis albescens (Fowler 1900: 57) – Mexico (Jalisco), Panama
Flatormenis albipennis (Van Duzee, 1907: 38) – Jamaica
= Flatormenis chloris (Melichar 1902: 13, error) see Flatormenis proxima
Flatormenis dolobrata (Fowler 1900: 56) – Mexico (Morales, Guerrero)
= Flatormenis duplicata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
Flatormenis fumata (Schmidt 1904: 365) – Ecuador
Flatormenis fusca (Melichar 1902: 75) – Mexico (no specific locality)
Flatormenis glaucescens (Walker, 1858: 118) – Dominican Republic
Flatormenis griseoalba (Fowler 1900: 57) – Guatemala, Panama, Peru = F. gliseoalba missp.
Flatormenis inferior (Fowler 1900: 58) – Mexico (Morelos, Veracruz, Tabasco), Costa Rica
= Flatormenis nefuscata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
= Flatormenis nefuscata amplata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
Flatormenis panamensis (Schmidt 1904: 364) – Panama
Flatormenis proxima (Walker 1851:462) – USA: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, RI, SC, TN, TX, VA; CAN: ON, QC
= Poeciloptera proxima Walker, 1851: 459.
= Ormenis proxima (Walker, 1851); comb. by Stål 1862: 490.
= Ormenis chloris Melichar, 1902: 89.
= Anormenis chloris (Melichar, 1902); comb. by Melichar 1923: 69; see also O’Brien 1985: 660.
= Anormenis septentrionalis auct. (nec Spinola, 1839); syn. by O’Brien 1985: 657-660.
= Flatormenis chloris (Melichar, 1902: 89); comb. by Medler 2003: 593 (from Anormenis Melichar 1923).
= Flatormenis chloris (Melichar, 1902); syn in Bartlett et al. 2014.
Flatormenis pseudomarginata (Muir, 1924: 469) – Puerto Rico
Flatormenis saucia (Van Duzee, 1912)
= Ormenis saucia Van Duzee, 1912a: 498.
= Flatormenis saucia (Van Duzee, 1912a); comb. by Bartlett et al. 2014.
= Ormenis yumana Ball, 1933b: 148; syn. by Bartlett et al. 2014.
Flatormenis squamulosa (Fowler 1900: 57) – Mexico (Guerrero, Yucatan, Morelos), Guatemala, Trinidad
= Flatormenis stylata Caldwell, 1951 (in Caldwell & Martorell 1951); see Ilesia Fennah
Flatormenis tarnabensis Ahmed & Rao, 1986 – Pakistan
Nomenclatural note on Flatormenis proxima – this species was for many years called “Anormenis septentrionalis”, however O’Brien (1985) found that Spinola’s type specimen was not this species and the name had been misapplied. O’Brien (1985) determined that the correct species concept was that of Anormenis chloris(Melichar). Subsequently, Medler (2003) referred the species to Flatormenis. Most recently (Bartlett et al. 2014) found that F. chloris was a synonym of F. proxima (Walker).
The name ‘Anormenis chloris‘ persists in popular – and sometimes technical – usage. It is sometimes called the ‘northern flatid planthopper’.
List compiled primarily from FLOW (Bourgoin 2013), also Metcalf (1957) and an unpublished list by Lois O’Brien.
Several common species, but not usually of major importance, although F. proxima is known to feed on a variety of ornamental and agricultural plants. Flatormenis proxima can be important on walnut. Flatormenis (esp. proxima) may occur in large numbers, but do little apparent damage to plants and have not been directly implicated in plant disease transmission (although this has not been excluded either). Wax deposits of immatures on ornamental plants may be unsightly.
[More to come; see FLOW]
- Flatormenis proxima is polyphagous; Juglans nigra L.(Juglandaceae, black walnut), Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (Betulaceae, hophornbeam), Quercus velutina Lam. (Fagaceae, black oak), Ulmus rubra Muhl. (Ulmaceae, slippery elm), Maclura pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid. (Moraceae, osage orange), Morus rubraL. (Moraceae, red mulberry), Rumex obtusifolius L. (bitter dock, Polygonaceae),
- Phytolacca americana L. (American pokeweed, Phytolaccaceae), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tuliptree, Magnoliaceae), Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal (Annonaceae, pawpaw), Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (Lauraceae, sassafras), Liquidambar styraciflua L.(Hamamelidaceae, sweetgum), Platanus occidentalis L. (Platanaceae, American sycamore), and 30 more in Wilson & McPhearson (1981)
Hosts from Nixon & McPherson (1977), Wilson & McPhearson (1981), and Wilson et al. (1994); plant names from USDA PLANTS or Tropicos. See also FLOW for additional hosts not listed above (although none indicated as of June 6, 2017).
There are no keys to species – it is best to use tails for species confirmation. Flatormenis has a strongly upcurved aedeagus. It is likely that the genus needs revision.
Compared to the U.S. Fauna:
Wings broad distally (not Selizini), held parallel to body (not Flatoidinae), frons not produced conically (vs. Siphanta); body color varied – often green (e.g., F. proxima), but may include brown, grey or red shades (e.g., F. saucia, F. squamulosa) or grey (F. panamensis); forewing with 2 submarginal veins separating 2 rows of cells at least at wing apex; forewings truncate distally.
Flatormenis proxima is probably the most abundant flatid in the eastern U.S. Often confused in the east with Ormenoides venusta, which is smaller with forewings rounded at apex, and the frons is wider in Flatormenis. In the western U.S., Flatormenis saucia is the most common and widespread flatid species. This species varies in color (greenish to orangish), but is often recognized by the orangish mesonotum. Flatormenis squamulosa and F. inferior are reported here based on specimens identified by Medler at TAMU. Flatormenis squamulosa is similar in size to F. proxima, but has a brownish cast. Flatormenis inferior is a smaller species. There is at least one undescribed Flatormenis in Arizona (and possibly 1 in California).
Illustrations of Genitalia (More will be posted as I encounter them)
Flatormenis can be commonly collected by general inspection, sweeping or beating of woody vegetation. They are frequently conspicuous on their hosts.
Data for Flatormenis is available on Barcode of life (Under Anormenis) for F. chloris (as. A. chloris and A. proxima); and for Flatormenis panamaensis (although the genus is misspelled). Data for Flatormenis does not appear to be available on Genbank.
Ahmed, M. and S. Rao. 1986. Some commonly found leaf and planthoppers on vegetable plants in the suburbs of Peshawar N.W.F.P., Pakistan. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology 6: 73-80.
Ball, E. D. 1933d. Notes on the Fulgoridae with some new species. Psyche 40: 145-150.
Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.
Bourgoin, T. 2018. FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. Version 8, updated 1 Oct. 2018. http://hemiptera-databases.org/flow/
Caldwell, J. S. and L. F. Martorell. 1951 [dated1950]. Review of the Auchenorynchous [sic] Homoptera of Puerto Rico. Part II. The Fulgoroidea except Kinnaridae. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico 34(2): 133-269.
Fennah, R. G. 1965. New Species of Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) from the West Indies. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 117(4): 95-126.
Fowler, W. W. 1900. Order Rhynchota. Suborder Hemiptera-Homoptera. (Continued). In Biologia Centrali-Americana; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the fauna and flora of Mexico and Central America. Porter, London. 1:44-76.
Medler, J. T. 2003. Types of Flatidae. XXIV. Type designations and taxonomic notes on species in the Natural History Museum of Geneva (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 110(3): 591-597.
Melichar, L. 1902a. Monographie der Acanoloniiden und Flatiden (Homoptera) (Fortsetzung.). Annalen des k. k. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums. 17: 1-253. Plate(s): 1-9.
Melichar, L. 1923a. Homptera, fam. Acanaloniidae, Flatidae et Ricaniidae. Genera Insectorum 182: 1-185.
Metcalf, Z. P. 1938a. The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College 82: 277-423.
Metcalf, Z. P. 1957. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 13, Flatidae and Hypochthonellidae. North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina. Pp. 1-565.
Muir, F.A.G. 1924g. New and little known fulgorids form the West Indies (Homoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 5:461-472.
Nixon, P. L. and J. E. McPherson. 1977. An annotated list of the phytophagous insects collected on immature black walnut trees in southern Illinois. Great Lakes Entomologist 10: 211-222.
O’Brien, L. B. 1985. New synonymies and combinations in New World Fulgoroidea (Achilidae, Delphacidae, Flatidae, Fulgoridae: Homoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78(5): 657-662.
O’Brien, L. B. 1987. Corrections and additions to Metcalf’s “The Fulgorina of Barro Colorado and other parts of Panama” (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 80(3): 379-390.
Paiero, S. M., S. A. Marshall and K.G.A. Hamilton. 2003 New records of Hemiptera from Canada and Ontario. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario 134: 115-129. pdf
Schmidt, E. 1904b. Neue und bemerkenswerthe Flatiden des Stettiner Museums. Entomologische Zeitung (Herausgegeben von dem entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin). 65: 354-381.
Spinola, M. 1839a. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 133-337.
Spinola, M. 1839b. Essai sur les Fulgorelles, sous-tribu de la tribu des Cicadaires, ordre des Rhyngotes. (Suite). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 8: 339-454.
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Wilson, S. W. and J. E. McPherson. 1979. A preliminary report on the bionomics of Fulgoroidea on black walnut with emphasis on Anormenis septentrionalis (Spinola) (Homoptera). Pp. 29-34. In: Walnut insects and Diseases. Workshop Proceedings of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, General Technical Report. U S Forest Service General Technical Report NC.
Wilson, S. W., C. Mitter, R. F. Denno and M. R. Wilson. 1994. Evolutionary patterns of host plant use by delphacid planthoppers and their relatives. In: R. F. Denno and T. J. Perfect, (eds.). Planthoppers: Their Ecology and Management. Chapman and Hall, New York. Pp. 7-45 & Appendix.