Europe, Asia Minor, s.e. of England
Pyramidal to rounded in youth, oval-rounded when mature.
Prefer full sun, will tolerate part shade. It has a wide range tolerance of soil: light to heavy, acid to alkaline, prefer well drained soil.
Screens, or hedge grouping.
Alternate, simple, 2.5 to 5 inches long, 1 to 2 inches wide, ovate to ovate-oblong shape foliage, apex is short pointed, sharply doubly serrate margin, base cordate.
Buds are imbricate angular- conical, brownish to reddish, scale with soft pubescence, .25 to .33 inches long.
Smooth, steel gray, fluted.
Monoecious. Male: invisible, the male catkins 1.5 inches long, female catkins about 1.5 to 3 inches long. April.
Net ribbed .25 inches long, mature about September to October.
Grafting. By seeds and cuttings difficult but possible.
'Asplenifolia' - Toothed, lobed leaves.
'Columnaris' - Columnar.
'Fastigiata' - Densely branched, oval-vase habit.
'Purpurea' - Purple new foliage.