Genus Anotia Kirby, 1821
[Back to North American Derbidae]
Family Derbidae Spinola, 1839
Subfamily Otiocerinae Muir 1917
Tribe Otiocerini Muir, 1917
Genus Anotia Kirby, 1821
Type species: Anotia bonnetii Kirby, 1821.
Amalopota Van Duzee, 1889 (Type species Amalopota uhleri Van Duzee 1889); syn. by Fennah 1952: 152.
[Fennah 1952: 152 “With series of varied Anotia before him the writer [Fennah] found intermediate stages in characters which serve to distinguish Anotia bonnetii Kby. from Amalopota uhleri Van Duzee, and accordingly cannot at present recognize Amalopota as a separate genus, or even as a subgenus.”
This statement has been taken to mean that Amalopota is a synonym of Anotia, but Fennah did not make a formal statement of synonymy -viz. list Amalopota as a syn. of Anotia on p. 157 of the same work, which may have led to subsequent confusion. Perhaps the matter should be reviewed, although the key diagnostic differences (e.g., those given by Metcalf 1923 in couplet 185 in screenshot below) seem to me unconvincing, or at least incomplete, as genus-level features.]
Widespread in the Nearctic (esp. south) and Central America.
By my count, 19 species in Nearctic and Central America.
Amalopota in Metcalf 1945: 142.
Anotia in Metcalf 1945: 144.
Anotia bonnetii Kirby, 1821 – USA: CT, FL, GA, IL, KS, NC, NJ, NY, OH, TX; CAN: ON; Mexico (Guerrero)
= Anotia ruficollis Fowler, 1904: 78; syn. by Ball 1928: 197.
Anotia burnetii Fitch, 1856: 395 – USA: IL, IN, MS, NC, NY, PA, TX; CAN: ON
Anotia caliginosa Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
Anotia fitchi (Van Duzee, 1893) – USA: FL, GA, IL, KS, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN; Cuba; Mexico (Tabasco); Panama
= Amalopota fitchi Van Duzee, 1893: 280.
= Anotia fitchi (Van Duzee, 1893); comb. by implication Fennah 1952: 152.
= Anotia venustula Fowler, 1904: 78; syn. by Ball, 1928: 197.
= Anotia fitchi trinitatis Fennah, 1952: 159 – Trinidad
Anotia formaster Fennah, 1952: 160 – Trinidad
Anotia invalida Fowler, 1904: 79 – Guatemala, Panama
Anotia kirkaldyi Ball, 1902b – USA: DE, IA, IL, KS, MS, NC, OH, PA, VA; CAN: ON
Anotia lineata Ball, 1937 – USA: AZ
Anotia mcateei (Dozier, 1928) – USA: IL, MS
= Amalopota mcateei Dozier, 1928: 141-142.
= Anotia mcateei (Dozier, 1928); comb. by implication Fennah 1952: 152.
Anotia marginicornis Fowler, 1904: 77 – Guatemala
Anotia pellucida Fowler, 1904: 77 – Mexico (Veracruz, as “Orizaba”)
Anotia punctata Metcalf, 1938 – Panama
Anotia robertsonii Fitch, 1856 – USA: AR, DE, FL, NC, NJ, OK, PA
Anotia rubrinoda Fennah, 1952: 159 – Trinidad
Anotia sanguinea Fennah, 1952: 157 – Trinidad
Anotia smithi Fowler, 1904: 77 – Mexico (Guerrero)
Anotia tenella Fowler, 1904: 78 – Mexico (Guerrero)
Anotia uhleri (Van Duzee, 1889: 176) – USA: FL, IL, IN, MN, MO, MS, NC, NY, OH, RI, TN; CAN: ON, QC
= Amalopota uhleri Van Duzee, 1889: 178.
= Anotia uhleri (Van Duzee, 1889); comb. by implication Fennah 1952: 152.
Anotia westwoodi Fitch, 1856 – USA: DC, DE, IL, KS, MD, MO, NC, NJ, NY, OH, PA, TN; CAN: ON
Interamma septentrionalis Anufriev, 1968 (from the Russian far east) was moved to Amalopota septentrionalis (Anufriev, 1968) by Emeljanov 1999 (full citation below). The placement of this species in the invalid genus Amalopota needs review, particularly since it implies that Anotia should include Old World members.
Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. The significance of adult host associations is unclear.
- Anotia fitchi – Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane), Spartina pectinata Bosc ex Link (prairie cordgrass, Poaceae), Carya (Hickory, Juglandaceae)
- Anotia uhleri – Acer (Maple, Aceraceae), ‘sometimes on dogwood’ (Spooner 1937)
- Anotia bonnetii – Salix (Fitch 1893: 387 [reprint of 1851])
Pale, fragile forms; wings greatly exceeding the abdomen; frons extremely compressed; pustules along claval vein; clavus open, antennae without appendages (‘Anotia‘ means absence of the external ear’), head projecting in front of eyes for distance similar to width of eyes, head roundly triangularly pointed up at 45 degree angle, costal margin of wing without appendage (vs. Sayiana).
Species in this genus are recognized largely by the color pattern of the wings and head. This can present challenges because the color pattern is not fully developed in freshly emerged (i.e., teneral) adults (and the color fades in old specimens), and it is not entirely clear how much the color pattern varies in adults. Also, to date, genitalia have not been described for any of these species, so it is possible that not all described species north of Mexico are ‘good’ species, or that there are species in addition to those currently described. Some species are incompletely characterized. Neotropical species are undoubtedly more diverse than currently described (for example, Costa Rican species photographed by Gernot Kunz).
Eastern species can be identified in Bartlett et al. 2011.
Amalapota was described in surprising detail in Van Duzee 1889: 176, provided below; in a footnote, Van Duzee noted that Amalapota came from Greek meaning “feeble flight”. [corrected OCR from BHL, although there may still be errors]
Form very slight. Head rather short, horizontal above, almost vertical before, with superior and frontal keels about as in Anotia; apex obtuse. Eyes of medium size, emarginate below. Ocelli two, distinct, placed below and very near the inferior angles of the eyes. Antennae about as long as the head, situated at the base of the clypeus in a socket formed by a sharp, slightly elevated ring ; basal joint very short and annular; second joint diverse in the two sexes; in the male, much flattened, with the sides almost parallel ; in the female, shorter and slightly flattened ; in both sexes papillated, with a subterminal emargination, from which springs a bristle. Clypeus triangularly ovate, convex. Rostrum long, reaching to about the middle of the venter; terminal joint very short. Prothorax linear above, produced in an acute angle between the eyes ; on the sides, suddenly expanded to a broad, thin scale. Humeral scales large and prominent. Legs slender, unarmed, of medium length; the posterior femorae somewhat thickened; posterior tarsi three jointed basal joint longer than the second and third united. Elytra long and narrow, widest at the inner apical angle ; apex broadly rounded, a little retreating posteriorly; the costal area expanded near the base into a broadly rounded, slightly recurved lobe ; a slight constriction of the costa just before the apex, with a thickening of the veins there, produces the appearance of an imperfect stigma. Venation simple, almost as in Anotia; costal area rather broad ; mediastinal vein forked at the basal third; costal branch sending about two veinlets to the costa in the stigmatal region, and united by a cross vein to the outer fork of the inner branch, which is straight and twice forked just before the apex. Postcostal vein joining the mediastinal near the base and running straight 10 the apex of the elytra, parallel to the inner branch of the mediastinal vein; the long, straight cell thus formed is crossed by two veinlets, one at the apical third, the other near the apex. A cross vein joins the post-costal with the median vein near the middle of the elytra, beyond which the former sends five branches to the inner apical margin, the basal two of which are themselves forked near their apex, and united by a zigzag submarginal vein that reaches the claval suture ; at this submarginal vein terminate the anal and the two branches of the median vein. The apical forks of the post-costal vein are united by slender cross veins, which with this submarginal vein form a series of about twelve apical and marginal areoles from the semi-stigma to the clavus. Wing : — Mediastinal vein simple, near the costa, which it touches at about the middle ; post-costal vein bifid before the apex, and united by a cross vein to the mediastinal and median veins, the latter of which is also bifid. Abdomen short and broad, with a dorsal carina; showing five segments above and four beneath.
The vertex and front are so compressed into the superior and frontal keels that they might not improperly be described as wanting. These keels, as in Anotia are united on the front and divergent posteriorly on the vertex, the included space being cut out to receive the pronotum. The mesonotum is convex and lozenge-shaped, the length scarcely greater than the width, which greatly exceeds that of the head ; with three dorsal carinae. Four anterior coxae long and slender, placed obliquely; posterior short and thick. Base of the femorae approximate. The genital pieces scarcely differ from those of Otiocerus.
This genus differs from Anotia, to which it is perhaps most nearly related, by the presence of ocelli, the greater length of the rostrum, the smaller number of veins in the stigmatal region, etc. ; from Patara by the presence of ocelli, the greater length of the rostrum, the shape of the head and thorax, and the venation; from Mysidia and Derbe (Westw.), it differs in the single frontal carina, in the shape and venation of the wings and the form of the eyes, but agrees with the latter genus in the presence of the costal constriction (although less pronounced), and the length of the rostrum. The only genus described by Stal to which it need be compared is Hulcita, from which it is sufficiently differentiated by the presence of ocelli, the form of the vertex, antennae, etc.
Key to eastern species from Metcalf (1923). Amalapota is a synonym of Anotia. Couplet 188 does not seem to work well since westwoodi & kirkaldyi also can have spots.
I am going to briefly describe some impressions of North American Anotia species. Because the genus is common, I have often been asked to identify specimens – particularly from photos – and some species definitions are unclear. This is in part because of variation (including that recently emerged individuals appear to e paler), and in part because species definitions are dependent entirely upon color without being confirmed by genital features (not described for most species).
The species Anotia fitchi, Anotia uhleri, Anotia mcateei and Anotia lineata appear to me to be fairly distinctively marked and are commented on below. The 6 remaining species have a wing pattern where dark markings predominately follow the forewing veins. If I am not mistaken – and I may be – in Anotia robertsonii the vein markings are intense in the middle of the distal region of the remigium on what appear to be M-veins., and contrasting with an otherwise paler wing. In Anotia burnetii (where I have not seen enough specimens to be sure, this one, and this one, might be burnetti), the same pattern is evident as robertsonii, but less intense. Anotia caliginosa is the only western species with the dark markings following the veins (to me the wing markings appear pallid and narrow, although slightly more intense on the same veins as robertsonii).
The remaining species – Anotia bonnetii, Anotia kirkaldyi and Anotia westwoodi appear similar in many respects (caliginosa also, if distribution is discounted), and I have had difficulties finding consistent differences; bonnetii is supposed to have round markings near the cells on the distal margin of the wings, and kirkaldyi has some veins notably darkened. However, I suspect that all three species have rounded spots in the cells near the apex of the wing (how clear these are is another matter), and the dark vein issue, although clear sometimes, is hard to judge.
In combination with the wing features, I have been using color features of the head, which seem consistent, but very in intensity. If it holds, it appears that kirkaldyi has a pair of reddish markings on the head, in contrast westwoodi has a blackish marking on the top of the head (lateral view), like this:
This leaves bonnetii, which remains a problem to me; bonnetii may either be a pallid species (with 1 red head marking, like the specimen below), or an intensely marked species with 2 red head markings, differing from kirkaldyi in having no dark veins (and qualitatively different spots at the wing apex). Most of the specimens recorded as bonnetii e.g. on bugguide, I would want to call kirkaldyi, but the lack of clarity between the species, and uncertainty about the degree to which color features are consistent among species has prevented me from providing any clear diagnostic guidance until I (or someone) studies the tails.
Still, there are images of some specimens (e.g., here) that are not clearly any of the above.
Anotia burnetii Fitch, 1856 – characterized by middorsal dark markings on first 3 abdominal segments. I have seen very few specimens that I can refer to this species. I note that the terga of Anotia may be pale or marked either with dark (‘black’) or red (but apparently only burnetii has them on the post proximal abdominal terga). It is unclear to me whether such abdominal markings are consistent among species. . Spooner (1937) reports 9 specimens collected in southern Illinois (in August; perhaps the species is mostly Midwestern).
Anotia fitchi (Van Duzee, 1893) – a former Amolopota, recognizable for red markings on the body and wings; wings are broadly marked with dark; markings on the mesothorax suggest lineata.
Anotia lineata Ball, 1937 – one of only 2 predominately western species, lineata can be recognized by its color pattern suggesting pair of dark vitta beginning on the gena, extending below the eyes, across the lateral aspects of the pronotum and forewings, becoming broader and more diffuse on the wings.
Anotia uhleri (Van Duzee, 1889: 176) – the type species of Amalopota, the only species with entirely red-themed patterning, including most of the body (not the legs), the base and apex of the forewing, leaving the middle region of the forewings clear.
Anotia mcateei (Dozier, 1928) – formerly in Amalopota, I have not seen any specimens matching Dozier’s description (and Dozier’s types are missing)
El Paso County extension education.
Hoppers of North Carolina.
Fulgores Liste des espèces Fulgoroidea Hémiptères.
3I Interactive Keys and Taxonomic Databases.
Found infrequently at lights or by sweeping, especially in cool, wet situations. Adults are assumed to remain near habitat for immatures.
As of this writing, there are appears to be no molecular data for this genus on Genbank; Barcode of Life has data for 2 species, 9 specimens (A. bonnetii & A. uhleri).
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