Genus Javesella Fennah, 1963

[back to Higher Classification of Delphacidae]
[back to A checklist of New World delphacid species]

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Javesella Fennah, 1963: 15.

Distribution: Widespread in Holarctic, especially north; some species circumboreal.

Distribution of Javesella from FLOW (as of 7 Aug 2017)

Type species (in original combination): Fulgora pellucida Fabricius, 1794: 7.


= Weidnerianella Wagner, 1963 (Type species Fulgora pellucida Fabricius, 1794; syn. by Wagner 1966: 91; see also Le Quesne 1964: 57.
= Javasella Fennah, 1963a; missp. by Maw et al. 2000: 84 and Hamilton 2002a: 17.


All species have not been assigned to subgenera.  The two described subgenera are:.

Subgenus Haffnerianella Wagner 1966 (type species Delphacodes stali Metcalf 1943, replacement name for the unavailable Delphax bohemani Stål, 1858, nec. Stål, 1854)

Subgenus  Javesella Fennah, 1963.

Recognized species

There are 23 species of Javesella as follows (I still need to add synonymies for Paleartic species):

Subgenus Javesella

1 Javesella alpina (Sahlberg, 1871) – Finland, Sweden, Norway,  Kanin Peninsula (Arctic regions of Fennoscandia and Siberia), North European Russia
 = Liburnia alpina Sahlberg, 1871

Javesella alpina tota  (Sahlberg, 1871) (the status of this name is not clear to me)
= Liburnia alpina tota Sahlberg, 1871
Delphacodes alpina tota (Sahlberg, 1871)

Note this subspecies and species listed as a junior synonym of Javesella forcipata by Nast 1972: 67; Ossiannilsson  1978: 200 treated alpina as a good species (but did not mention the subspecies, that I see).

2 Javesella azorica Remane, 1979: 2 – Azores

3 Javesella bottnica Hulden, 1974 – Finland, Russia

4 Javesella discolor (Boheman, 1847) – USA: Alaska; Canada: Yukon, Northwest territories; widespread in Europe, Russia, Mongolia, Northern Africa; East Palaearctic; Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, North European Russia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia
= Delphax discolor Boheman, 1847: 61.
= Liburnia discolor (Boheman, 1847); comb. by Scott, 1870: 75.
= Delphacodes discolor (Boheman, 1847); comb. by Le Quesne, 1964: 57.
= Javesella discolor (Boheman, 1847); comb. by Le Quesne, 1964: 57.
= Delphax fuscipennis Kirschbaum 1868; syn. By Wagner 1939.
= Delphax nitidula Kirschbaum 1868; syn. By Wagner 1939.
= Delphax patens Kirschbaum 1868; syn. By Wagner 1939.
= Delphax similis Kirschbaum 1868; syn. By Wagner 1939.

5 Javesella dubia (Kirschbaum, 1868) – Widespread in Palearctic; reported, e.g.,    Azores, Morocco, Altai, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan; East Palaearctic; Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Central European Russia, Corsica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan (Hokkaido), Kriti (Crete), Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Madeira Is., Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia (Altay, Kamchatka, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin, Siberia (Krasnoyarsk)), Sardinia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey,  Yugoslavia
= Delphax dubia Kirschbaum, 1868
= Delphax herrichi Kirschbaum, 1868; synonym by Wagner 1939: 125.
= Delphax nitidipennis Kirschbaum, 1868; synonym by Wagner 1939: 125.
= Liburnia difficilis Edwards, 1888; synonym by Wagner 1939: 125; Le Quesne (1960: 43).
= Liburnia pargasensis Reuter, 1880; synonym by Wagner 1963.

6 Javesella forcipata (Boheman, 1847) – Widespread in Palearctic, except south; East Palaearctic; Austria, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu), Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania,  Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (Buryatiya, Chita, Khabarovsk, Primorye, Tuva, Siberia (Krasnoyarsk); North European Russia, Central European Russia), Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Yugoslavia
= Delphax forcipata Boheman, 1847, original combination.
= Delphacodes angustata Metcalf, 1943; syn. by Wagner 1963: 176.
= Delphacodes dorsigera Metcalf, 1943; syn. by Wagner 1963: 176.
= Delphacodes rufescens Metcalf, 1943; syn. by Wagner 1963: 176.

7 Javesella obscurella (Boheman, 1847) – USA: Alaska, Canada: Yukon, Northwest Territories; widespread Palearctic (Eurosiberian), Mongolia;  East Palaearctic; Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (North European Russia, Central European Russia, South European Russia), Sardinia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Yugoslavia
= Delphax obscurella Boheman, 1847: 53
= Liburnia obscurella Boheman, 1847; comb. by Scott, 1870: 28.
= Delphacodes obscurella (Boheman, 1847); comb. by China, 1938: 197.
= Javesella obscurella (Boheman, 1847); comb. by Le Quesne, 1964: 57.
= Delphacodes fuscotestacea Metcalf, 1943
= Liburnia discreta Edwards, 1888

8 Javesella pellucida (Fabricius, 1794) [Metcalf 1943: 482] – Holarctic; widespread and common, especially north.  In New World, reported from Alaska, throughout Canada, widespread in the US, especially northern states, but reported from Cuba and Puerto Rico.  In Palearctic, northern Europe to Northern Africa Including the Azores) east to Mongolia and Japan. Also reported Iceland.

USA: AK, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DE, ID, IL, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, NC, ND, NH, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OH, OR, PA, TN, UT, VT, WA, WI, WY; CAN: AB, BC, LB, MB, NB, NF, NS, NT, NU, ON, QC, SK, YK; Cuba, Puerto Rico; Palearctic: Algeria, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany (inc. Baltrum Island), Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Iran, Italy (inc. Sardegna), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands (inc. Nijmegen as “Batavia”), Norway, Poland, Portugal,  Romania, Russia (Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin, Tuva; Siberia (Krasnoyarsk); Caucasus, Kamchatka, Sakhalin Island, Siberia, Transcaucasia), Sardinia, Scandinavia, Scotland, Slovakia, Spain (inc. Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkestan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wales, Yugoslavia.

Distribution of Javesella pellucida according to FLOW (1 Sept. 2018)

= Fulgora pellucida Fabricius, 1794: 7.
= Fulgora striata Fabricius,1794; syn. with Delphax dispar Fallén, 1806 by Zetterstedt, 1828: 548; syn. with Delphax pellucida by Flor, 1861: 65.
= Fulgora marginata Fabricius, 1794; syn. with Delphax dispar Fallén, 1806 by Fallén, 1806: 126; syn. with Delphax pellucida by Herrich-Schäffer, 1836: 18.
= Fulgora flavescens Fabricius, 1794; syn. with Delphax dispar Fallén, 1806 by Fallén, 1806: 126; syn. with Delphax pellucida by Flor, 1861: 65.
= Cicada pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Weber, 1795: 146.
= Delphax pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Fabricius, 1803 :84.
= Delphax striata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Fabricius, 1803: 84.
= Delphax marginata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Fabricius, 1803: 84.
= Delphax flauescens [sic] (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Fabricius, 1803: 84.
= Asiraca pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Latreille, 1804: 318.
= Asiraca striata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Latreille, 1804: 318.
= Asiraca marginata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Latreille, 1804: 318.
= Asiraca flavescens (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Latreille, 1804: 318.
= Delphax dispar Fallén, 1806; syn. with Delphax pellucida by Flor, 1861: 65..
= Delphax suturalis Curtis, 1837; syn. with Delphax pellucida by Flor, 1861: 65.
= Delphax dubia Kirschbaum, 1868 (nec. Panzer, 1796); syn. with Liburnia pellucida (Fabricius, 1794) by Fieber, 1872: 5.
= Delphax piceola Kirschbaum, 1868; syn. with Delphax pellucida (Fabricius, 1794) by Puton, 1886: 73.
= Liburnia pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Stål, 1869: 117.
= Liburnia striata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Stål, 1869: 117.
= Liburnia marginata (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Stål, 1869: 117.
= Liburnia flavescens (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Stål, 1869: 117.
= Achorotile pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Oshanin, 1870: 48.
= Liburnia suturalis (Curtis, 1837); comb. by Fieber, 1872: 5.
= Delphax pellucida dispar (Fallén, 1806); comb. by Mayr, 1884 :20.
= Liburnia pellucida dispar (Fallén, 1806); comb. by Melichar, 1896: 71.
= Liburnia yezoana Matsumura, 1900; syn. by Muir and Giffard, 1924: 20.
= Embolophpora [sic.] pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Kirkaldy, 1901: 338.
= Delphax yezoana (Matsumura, 1900); comb. by Oshanin, 1907: 330.
= Megamelus pellucidus (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Crawford, 1914: 607, 615.
= Liburnia arvensis (Fitch, 1856); syn. by Crawford 1914: 615 (error).
= Liburnia semicinctus Van Duzee, 1917; syn. with Delphacodes pellucida by Muir and Giffard, 1924: 20.
= Delphacodes pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Muir and Giffard, 1924: 20.
= Javesella pellucida (Fabricius, 1794); comb. by Fennah, 1963: 15.
= Delphacodes stenjeneri (Ashmead, 1899); syn. by Vilbaste, 1980: 373.

9 Javesella salina (Haupt, 1924) – Eastern Palearctic (Central, eastern, and Southeastern Europe, Asia Minor), Mongolia; East Palaearctic; Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden
= Delphax salina Haupt, 1924
= Liburnia juncea Haupt, 1935; new name for Delphax discolor Fieber 1866 [nec. Boheman]; syn with Javesella salina (Haupt) by Wagner 1963: 176.
= Delphacodes juncea (Haupt); comb. by Metcalf 1943: 456.
= Javesella salina (Haupt, 1924); comb. by Wagner 1963: 176.

10 Javesella simillima Linnavuori, 1948) – USA: Alaska; Canada: Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Yukon; East Palearctic – Arctic regions; Finland, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Poland, Romania, Russia (North European Russia,), Germany, East Fennoscandia.
= Calligypona simillima Linnavuori, 1948.
= Javesella simillima (Linnavuori, 1948); comb. by Nast, 1972: 68.
= Delphacodes saileri Beamer 1952; syn. by Wilson, 1988: 341.

Subgenus Haffnerianella

11 Javesella stali (Metcalf, 1943) – Northern, eastern and central Europe, Eastern Siberia; Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Mongolia, North European Russia, Poland. Slovakia, Sweden.
= Delphacodes stali Metcalf, 1943

Not placed to subgenus

12 Javesella arcanastyla (Beamer, 1948) – USA: Alaska, Michigan, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming; Canada: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Yukon.
= Delphacodes arcanastyla Beamer, 1948: 101.
= Javesella arcanastyla (Beamer, 1948); comb. by Wilson, 1988: 341.

13 Javesella atrata (Osborn, 1938) – USA: Alaska, Connecticut, Illinois, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio; Canada: Alberta Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Yukon.
= Delphacodes atrata Osborn, 1938: 344.
= Javesella atrata (Osborn, 1938); comb. by Wilson, 1988: 341.

14 Javesella badia Anufriev, 1988: 422 (In Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988) – Russia (Prim., Sikhote Alin Reserve, Upper Nantsa)

15 Javesella beringiaca Emeljanov, 1992 – Canada: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Yukon; Russia (Kamchatka, Magadan, Sakhalin Regions)

16 Javesella compacta Mitjaev, 1987 – Russia (Kazakhstan)

17 Javesella dolera (Spooner, 1912) – USA: Illinois, New York, Virginia
= Liburnia dolera Spooner, 1912: 240.
= Megamelus dolerus (Spooner, 1912); comb. by Crawford, 1914: 630.
= Delphacodes dolera (Spooner, 1912); comb. by Metcalf, 1928: 182.
= [Javesella] dolera (Spooner, 1912); comb. by Maw et. al., 2000: 84.

18 Javesella ila Wilson, 1992 – Canada: Yukon; USA: New Hampshire

19 Javesella incerta (Van Duzee, 1897) – Canada:  Quebec; USA: Michigan, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania
= Liburnia incerta Van Duzee, 1897: 227, 258.
= Dicranotropis incerta (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Muir & Giffard 1924: 17.
= Delphacodes incerta (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Metcalf, 1928: 182; Oman, 1947: 210-211.
= Javesella incerta (Van Duzee, 1897); comb. by Bartlett et al. 2014: 119.

20 Javesella lutulentella (Muir & Giffard, 1924) – USA: California; Canada: British Columbia.
= Delphacodes lutulentella Muir and Giffard, 1924: 24.
= Javesella lutulentella Muir and Giffard, 1924 comb. by Maw et. al., 2000: 84.

21 Javesella nuchtica Dlabola, 1967 – Mongolia

22 Javesella opaca (Beamer, 1948) – CAN: Ontario, Quebec; USA: Alabama, Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusets, North Carolina, New York, Pennsylvainia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia
= Delphacodes opaca Beamer 1948: 8, 10.
= Javesella opaca (Beamer, 1948); comb. by Maw et. al., 2000.

23 Javesella selengica Dlabola, 1970 – Mongolia

Plant associations

Javesella alpinaGeranium sp., Vaccinium myrtillus, Trollius sp., Dryopteris sp., Phegopteris sp.
Javesella discolor – on grasses: Deschampsia cespitosa, D. flexuosa, Calamagrostis canescens, and others; probably also on sedges (Carex, Scirpus) and rushes (Juncus, Luzula).
Javesella dubia: on grasses, mainly Agrostis stolonifera, and A. capillaris.
Javesella forcipata – on grasses: Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., Holcus mollis L., probably also Poa trivialis L., Poa annua L. , Calamagrostis canescens (Weber) Roth, Agrostis stolonifera L.
Javesella obscurella – on grasses, mainly Alopecurus geniculatus L., Glyceria fluitans (L.) R. Br. .
Javesella opacaPolytrichum commune Hedw. (Polytrichaceae) (Wheeler 2003, common hair-cap moss).
Javesella pellucida – Polyphagous, mostly grasses (Festuca, Elymus, Dactylis, Poa, Deschampsia, Agrostis, Lolium, Calamagrostis, Phleum, and others); less commonly on sedges, rushes, and horsetails.
Javesella salina: reported on the rush Juncus gerardii, and the grasses Puccinellia distans and Briza media.
Javesella simillimaEriophorum angustifolium; also reported from Carex rostrata.
Javesella stali: Equisetum arvense, E. palustre (horsetail)

Sources for host information: See Holzinger et al. (2003); see also Wilson et al. (1994) and FLOW.


Parasitism: ectoparasite
Abrolophus norvegicus (Thor, 1900) (Acari, Trombidiformes, Erythraeidae); see Sömermaa (1973: 196), Stroinski et al. (2013: 196) on Javesella pellucida.

Parasitism: parasitoid
Charletonia cardinalis (c. l. koch, 1837) (C. L. Koch, 1837) (Acari, Trombidiformes, Erythraeidae) ; see Southcott (1966), Stroinski et al. (2013: 197)  on Javesella pellucida.
Gonatopus lindbergi Heikinheimo (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Dryinidae) on Javesella pellucida.

Elenchus tenuicornis (Kirby, 1815) (Elenchidae: Strepsiptera) on Javesella pellucida (Sheppard 2014).

Halictophagus silwoodensis Waloff, 1981 (Strepsiptera: Halictophagidae) in Javesella discolor (Bland 1998)

Panstenon oxylus (Walker) (Pteromalidae) on Javesella pellucida (Graham 1969: 94); Mesopolobus graminum (Hardh 1950) (Graham 1969: 663).

Economic Importance

Several species reported as vectors of plant disease in small grains.

Javesella discolor (Oats) vectors Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV)
Javesella dubia (tall oat-grass) vectors Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and European wheat striate mosaic virus (EWSMV)
Javesella obscurella (oats, wheat) vectors Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and European wheat striate mosaic virus (EWSMV)
Javesella pellucida (barley, maize, oats, tall oat-grass, wheat) vectors Oat sterile dwarf virus (OSDV) and European wheat striate mosaic virus (EWSMV), and Maize rough dwarf virus  (MRDV) (Serjeant 1967, Harpaz 1972)


A common and widespread genus.  Species recognition is sometimes difficult but usually can be managed based on male genitalia.  Species recognition for females is difficult and may not always be possible with confidence.  Javesella pellucida is the most commonly encountered Javesella in North America.  This species can be quite variable in superficial external appearance.

Members of the genus are usually dark colored; the parameres of the male genitalia are widely diverging, narrow and sinuate; processes on segment X are closely approximated (vs. separated in Nothodelphax).

Keys to species for Palearctic taxa can be found in Holzinger et al. (2003) and Anufriev and Emeljanov (1988)

Javesella atrata (Photos by Kimberley Shropshire, Department of Entomology, University of Delaware)


Javesella discolor

Javesella dubia


Javesella obscurella

Javesella pellucida (note the strongly decurved aedeagus)

Javesella simillima


Molecular Resources

At this time, Genbank has data for Javesella obscurella and Javesella pellucida hereBold has barcode sequence data for Javesella pellucida here.  Urban et al. (2010) sequence 4 genetic loci (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, wingless, and cytochrome oxidase I) for Javesella pellucida and J. dubia.


Selected References (May be incomplete, still working on synonymy, plant association and distribution record literature)

Ammar, E. D. 1975. Effect of European wheat striate mosaic, acquired by feeding on diseased plants, on the biology of its planthopper vector Javesella pellucida. Annals of Applied Biology 79: 195-202.

Anufriev, G. A. and A. M. Averkin. 1982. On delphacids of the Komsomolsky Reserve (Khabarovsk Region, USSR) (Insecta, Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Delphacidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde in Dresden (1981) 9(6): 95-100.

Anufriev, G. A. and A. F. Emeljanov. 1988. Volume II: Homoptera and Heteroptera. In: P.A. Lehr (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the Far East of the USSR in Six Volumes, Transliteration of the Russian title: Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Dal’nego Vostoka SSSR v shesti tomakh. Vol. 2. Ravnokrylye i poluzhestkokrylye. In: P.A. Lehr (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the Far East of the USSR in Six Volume. Nauka, Leningrad.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Ungarns (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 139-154.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna der Turkei (Anatolien) (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 71-98.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Jugoslawiens und Bulgariens (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 99-138.

Asche, M. and H. Hoch. 1982.  Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands II (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 37-70.

Asche, M. and H. Hoch. 1986. Cixiidae and Delphacidae (Homoptera – Fulgoroidea) from Lebanon – a preliminary synopsis. Pp. : 18-19. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress Concerning the Rhynchota Fauna of Balkan and Adjacent Regions. 18-22 Aug. 1986. Mikrolimni – Prespa, Greece.

Asche, M. and R. Remane. 1982.  Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna Griechenlands I (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae) Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(6): 231-290.

Ashmead, W. H. 1899. Homoptera. In: Reports upon the insects, spiders, mites and myriapodes collected by Dr. L. Stejneger and mr. G.E.H. Barrett-Hamilton on the Commander Islands. The fur seals and fur-seal islands of North Pacific Ocean 4: 328-351. [Delphax stejnegeri Ashmead, 1899].

Barringer, L. E. and C. R. Bartlett. 2018. Pennsylvania planthoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Fulgoroidea): relative abundance and incidental catch using novel trapping methods. Insecta Mundi 0661: 1–31.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Beamer, R. H. 1948. Some new species of Delphacodes (continued) part III. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 21(1): 1-10.

Beamer, R. H. 1952. One old and five new species of delphacine fulgorids (Homoptera: Fulgoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 25(3): 111-115.

Bland, K. P. 1998. Halictophagus silwoodensis Waloff, 1981 (Strepsiptera: Halictophagidae) confirmed as a Scottish Insect. The entomologist’s record and journal of variation 110(1-12): 296-297. [Javesella discolor, etc noted]

Boheman, C. H. 1847. Nya Svenska Homoptera. Ofversigt af Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Forhandlingar 1847: 263-266. [Delphax palliata Boheman, 1847]

Bonfils, J & Della Giustina, W. 1978. Inventaire et repartition biogeographique des Homopteres Auchenorhynques de Corse. Bulletin de la Societe entomologique de France 83: 23-29.

Borges P. A. V., A. Costa, R. Cunha, R. Gabriel, V. Gonçalves, A. F. Martins, I. Melo, M. Parente, P. Raposeiro, P. Rodrigues, R. S. Santos, L. Silva, P. Vieira and V. Vieira. 2010. Listagem dos organismos terrestres e marinhos dos Açores (A list of the terrestrial and marine biota from the Azores). Principia, Cascais (Portugal). 432 pp. ISBN 978-989-8131-75-1

China, W. E. 1938b. Corrections and additions to James Edwards’ catalogue of British Hemiptera-Homoptera, Perth, 1908 (excluding Psyllidae). Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine. 74: 191-197.

Collgros, J. and P. Lebecque. 2012. Homoptères du camp national de Sissone: premières données de faunistique et d’écologie. L’Entomologiste Picard 22: 31-34. pdf

Crawford, D. L. 1914a. A contribution toward a monograph of the homopterous insects of the family Delphacidae of North and South America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 46: 557-640, plus 6 plates.

Curtis, J. 1837. Delphax. British Entomology 14: pl. 657.  [Delphax suturalis Curtis, 1837].

D’Urso, V. 1995. Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha. In: Checklist delle specie della Fauna Italiana 42: 1-35.

De Vrijer, P.W.F. 1981. Reproductive isolation in the genus Javesella Fenn. Acta Entomologica Fennica 38: 50-55.

De Vrijer, P.W.F. 1984. Variability in calling signals of the planthopper Javesella pellucida (F. ) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in relation to temperature, and consequences for species recognition during distant communication. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 34(3): 388-406.

De Vrijer, P.W.F. 1986. Species distinctiveness and variability of acoustic calling signals in the planthopper genus Javesella (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Netherlands Journal of Zoology 36(1): 162-175.

Demir, E. 2006. Contributions to the knowledge of turkish Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) with a new record, Pentastiridius nanus (Ivanoff, 1885). Munis Entomology & Zoology 1(1): 97-122.

Denno, R. F., G. K. Roderick and K. L. Olmstead. 1991. Density-related migration in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae): the role of habitat persistence. American Naturalist 138: 1513-1541.

Ding, J., F. Zhang, C. Hu and J. Wang. 1991. Three new records of the genus Javesella Fennah (Homoptera: Delphacidae) from China. Entomotaxonomia 13(2): 151-155.

Dlabola, J. 1965. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 54. Homoptera – Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 11(100): 79-136.

Dlabola, J. 1967.  Ergebnisse der 1. mongolisch-tschechoslowakischen entornologisch- botanischen Expedition in der Mongolei – Nr. 3: Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha (Erganzung). Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 12(118): 51-102 [54].

Dlabola, J. 1968. Ergebnisse der Zoologischen forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei NR. 163: Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 65: 364-374.

Dlabola, J. 1970. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen vom Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 220: Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 16(1-2): 1-25.

Dobson, R. M. 1991. The Natural History of the Muck Islands, North Ebudes 7. Insecta: Apterygota and Exopterygota.  The Glasgow naturalist 22(1): 31-40.

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