Genus Unkanodes Fennah, 1956

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Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Delphacinae Leach, 1815

Tribe Delphacini Leach, 1815

Genus Unkanodes Fennah, 1956: 474.

Distribution: Palearctic, with Unkanodes excisa reported from Alaska.

Type species (in original combination): Unkana sapporona Matsumura 1935: 131.

Generic synonyms

= Elymodelphax Wagner, 1963: 167 (type Liburnia excisa Melichar, 1898); Synonymy  by Dlabola 1965: 86.
= Chilodelphax Vilbaste, 1968: 26 (subgenus; type species ‘Unkanodes (C.) silvatica’ Vilbaste, 1968: 26); status revised to genus by Kwon (1982), returned to subgenus by Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409.
= Uncanodes Fennah, 1956; Missp. By Dlabola, 1965: 86.

Subgenera

Vilbaste (1968: 26) described Chilodelphax as a subgenus of Unkanodes, which has since been elevated to a genus by Kwon (1982), then revised to subgenus again by Anufriev & Emeljanov (1988: 409).  Anufriev (in Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988) described Kwonianella Anufriev, 1988 (in Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409); type species Liburnia albifascia Matsumura, 1900: 268) as a subgenus of Unkanodes with three species.  Other species have been explicitly or implicitly placed in the subgenus Unkanodes.

Recognized species

This genus is represented by 9 species (synonymy list incomplete; distribution information may be incomplete).

Subgenus Unkanodes Fennah, 1956

Unkanodes excisa (Melichar, 1898) – USA: Alaska; Austria, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Japan (Honshu), Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia (Kurile Is., Yakutskiya, North European Russia),Sweden,  Ukraine (note Coastal regions, Holzinger et al. 2003).
= Liburnia excisa Melichar, 1898: 67.
= Delphax excisa (Melichar, 1898); comb. by Puton 1899: 108.
= Liburnia elymi Jensen-Haarup, 1917: 3; syn. by Jensen-Haarup 1920: 53.
= Delphacodes excisa (Melichar, 1898); comb. by Metcalf 1943: 436.
= Elymodelphax excisa (Melichar, 1898); comb. by Wagner 1963: 167.
= Unkanodes excisa (Melichar, 1898); comb. by implication Dlabola 1965: 86.

Unkanodes latespinosa (Dlabola, 1957) – Afghanistan, Iran, Mongolia, Turkey (Anatolia), Yugoslavia.
= Calligypona latespinosa Dlabola, 1957
= Unkanodes latespinosa (Dlabola, 1957), comb. apparently by Dlabola 1964: 240 (see also Dlabola 1967: 53; Emeljanov 1977: 113).

Unkanodes paramarginata (Dlabola, 1961: 275) – Russia (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan).

Unkanodes sapporona (Matsumura, 1935) – China (Shansi, Zhejiang), Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kysuhu), Korea, Russia (Maritime Territory; Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Primorye, Sakhalin), Taiwan, India, Bangladesh.
= Unkana sapporona Matsumura, 1935
= Unkanodes sapporona (Matsumura, 1935), comb. by Fennah 1956: 474.

Unkanodes tanasijevici (Dlabola, 1965) – Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Iran, Mongolia.
= Elymodelphax tanasijevici Dlabola, 1965
= Calligypona zeravshanica Dubovsky, 1967; syn. by Emeljanov (1982: 98).
= Ribautodelphax notabilis Logvinenko, 1970

Subgenus Kwonianella Anufriev, 1988 (in Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409).

Unkanodes albifascia (Matsumura, 1900: 268) – Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), South Korea, Russia (Maritime Territory).
= Liburnia albifascia Matsumura, 1900: 268.
= Delphax albifascia (Matsumura 1900); comb. by Oshanin, 1907: 330.
= Delphacodes albifascia (Matsumura 1900); comb. by Metcalf, 1943: 400.
= Unkanodes (Chilodelphax) albifascia (Matsumura 1900); comb. by Vilbaste, 1968: 26.
= Chilodelphax albifascia (Matsumura 1900); status by Kwon, 1982: 4.
= Unkanodes (Kwonianella) albifascia (Matsumura 1900); comb. by Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409.

Unkanodes insularis Anufriev, 1988 (in Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409) – Russia, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu)

Unkanodes sympaticus Anufriev, 1988 (in Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409) – Russia

Subgenus ChilodelphaxVilbaste, 1968: 26

Unkanodes (Chilodelphax) silvaticus Vilbaste, 1968 – South Korea, Russia (Maritime Territory – Primorye)
= Unkanodes silvaticus Vilbaste 1968: 24.
= Chilodelphax silvaticus (Vilbaste, 1968), comb. by Kwon 1982: 4.
= Unkanodes (Chilodelphax) silvaticus Vilbaste, 1968; comb. by Anufriev & Emeljanov 1988: 409.

Notes:

Ding (2006) treats Ribautodelphax notabilis Logvinenko, 1970 as a valid species, but I have it as a synonym of Unkanodes tanasijevici (Dlabola, 1965) based on Nast (1987).

Economic importance:

Known as plant disease transmittors in rice and cereals and causitive agents of hopperburn.

Unkanodes albifascia – Vector of northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV), stripe disease and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). As well as rice, Mochida and Okada (1971) list a wide range of grass hosts.

Unkanodes sapporona is a vector of Northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV), Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), and Rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV).  This species is being increasingly investigated as a pest species. See also

Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid vectors of plant disease.

Unkanodes tanasijevici (including Ribautodelphax notabilis Logvinenko, 1970) is a vector of Iranian maize mosaic (?) nucleorhabdovirus (IMMV; = Maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV), Maize rough dwarf fijivirus  (MRDV), Rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV).  See also

Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid vectors of plant disease. See alsoWilson and Claridge, 1991;  Ling, 1979.

Plant associations:

Unkanodes albifascia – Rice (and other grasses); Agropyron sukushiense var. transiens (Hack.) Ohwi, Alopecurus aequalis subsp. amurensis (Kom.) Hultén, Avena fatua L., Avena sativa L., Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald, Carex dimorpholepis Steud., Dactylis glomerata L., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Hordeum distichon L., Hordeum vulgare L., Isachne globosa (Thunb. ex Murray) Kuntze, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Oryza sativa L., Phalaris arundinacea L., Phleum pratense L., Poa pratensis L., Polygonum fugax Small, Secale cereale L., Sorghum vulgare Pers. = Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (all Poaceae; Kwon 1982: 5)

Unkanodes excisaLeymus arenarius (L.) Hochst. (sand ryegrass; as Elymus arenarius L.).

Unkanodes insularisPoa pratensis L. (Poaceae; Fujinuma & Hayashi 2016: 281)

Unkanodes sapporona – Rice; Arundinella hirta (Thunb.) Koidz. Arundinella sp., Imperata sp. (satintail), Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv. (cogongrass), Ischaemum anthephoroides (Steud.) Miq., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson (Chinese silvergrass); Zea mays L. (corn, maize).

Unkanodes tanasijevici– wheat

Plant names primarily according to The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov) (GRIN when not in PLANTS, internet search when both fail).

Sources of host information Kwon, 1982, Wilson et al. (1994), Holzinger et al. (2003), Nickel (2003), Ding (2006); see FLOW for additional plant associations I might have missed.

Recognition

Similar to Ribautodelphax, including shape of parameres, but the processes of segment 10 do not cross.

Description of genus from Fennah 1956: 474.

“Rather slender. Head little narrower than pronotum. Vertex longer than broad, its width at base not exceeding width of an eye, shallowly rounded at apical margin; carinae of vertex and frons distinct. Frons longer than broad, with median carina forked only at extreme base. Antennae cylindrical, basal segment two and a half times as long as broad, at least half as long as second. Length of pronotum and mesonotum combined equal to maximum width of latter. Pronotum tricarinate, lateral discal carinae almost straight; very weakly curved laterad, not reaching hind margin and not in line with mesonotal carinae. Mesonotum longer than head and pronotum together, tricarinate. Legs terete, not at all compressed, post-tibial calcar with about twenty-two teeth, basal segment of post-tarsus devoid of spines.”

Description from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988: 407-408:

Body relatively slender. Head somewhat narrower than pronotum. Macrocoryphe longer than wide (its width not exceeding [p. 407] transverse diameter of eye), slightly arcuate rounded anteriorly. Carinae of head distinct. Eumetope narrow, about 2-2.5 times as long as wide, parallel-sided under eyes, noticeably narrowing upwards between eyes. Median carina of eumetope becoming bifurcate on the turn into acrometope. Lateral carinae of disc of pronotum not reaching posterior margin of pronotum. Posttibial spur with 10-20 well developed denticles; apical denticle separate from the rest teeth. Male. Posterior edging of pygofer with a cut on sides. Anal tube with 2 teeth; sclerotization between bases [p. 408] of teeth often weakened, or teeth absent. Styli flattened, diverging or more or less parallel beyond middle, with complex apices, zigzag-shaped bent and wide or narrowed and slanting outwards. Bridge of pygofer bearing entrally 2 closely approximate, slanting upwards teeth or a projection with 2 apices. Aedeagus more or less straight, or bent ventrad, elbow-shaped, slightly asymmetrical due to location of gonopore and arrangement of teeeth on shaft. Gonopore dorsal, subapical.

Subgenera (Based on key in Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988, edited for clarity

Subgenus Unkanodes Fennah

Bridge of pygofer [armature of diaphragm] with a pair of approximate processes slanting upwards. Styli [gonostyli] more or less parallel-sided, with relatively wide apices. Anal tube with large, widely spaced teeth. Aedeagus more or less straight in lateral view.

Subgenus Chilodelphax Vilbaste

Bridge of pygofer without teeth or with a tooth bifurcate only at the very apex. Styli with narrowed apices slanting outwards. Anal tube with or without teeth. Shaft of aedeagus bent ventrad near the middle.

Dorsal and posterior margin of pygofer forming obtuse angle in lateral view. Anal tube with large, widely spaced teeth. Apical half of aedeagus straight.

For U. (C.) silvaticus: Carinae on head and coryphe white; acrometope and whole face dark brown, with light specks. Pronotum white, with a pair of dark spots behind eyes. Scutellum light brown, with white longitudinal stripe in the middle. Fore wings shortened, rounded at apex, brown, lightened near scutellum and at apex. Legs light; thorax and abdomen ventrally dark brown.

Subgenus Kwonianella Anufiev

Bridge of pygofer without teeth or with a tooth bifurcate only at the very apex. Styli with narrowed apices slanting outwards. Anal tube with or without teeth. Shaft of aedeagus bent ventrad near the middle.

Dorsal and posterior margin of pygofer forming an acute angle in lateral view. Anal tube without teeth. Apical half of aedeagus slanting dorsad.

Unkanodes sapporona

Unkanodes sapporona

From Wilson and Claridge 1991

Unkanodes tanasijevici – male

Unkanodes tanasijeviciUnkanodes tanasijeviciUnkanodes tanasijevici

Unkanodes tanasijevici – female

Unkanodes tanasijevic

Unkanodes albifascia from Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease.

Biodiversity

Unkanodes albofascia from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988
Unkanodes excisa from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Unkanodes silvaticus

Unkanodes silvaticus from Anufriev and Emeljanov 1988

Unkanodes latespinosa from Dlabola 1957

Images of Unkanodes latespinosa from GBIF

https://www.gbif.org/species/2055990

Online resources.

3i.
EOL.
Bugguide.
Discover Life.
FLOW.
Hoppers of North Carolina.

Leafhopper, Planthopper and Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease.
Kunzweb Gallery.
American Insects.
BOLD.
GBIF.
Fauna Europaea.
Fauna of Denmark.
Leafhopper, Planthopper & Psyllid Vectors of Plant Disease.

Molecular resources:

Genbank has data for Unkanodes sapporona and Unkanodes sp.  BOLD provides barcode data for Unkanodes excisa and Unkanodes tanasijevici.  (as of 29 Sept. 2017)

 

Selected References

Anufriev G. A. and A. M. Averkin. 1982.  On Delphacids of the Komsomolsky Reserve (Khabarovsk Region, USSR) (Insecta, Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Delphacidae). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde in Dresden (1981) 9(6): 95-100.

Anufriev, G. A. and A. F. Emeljanov. 1988. Volume II: Homoptera and Heteroptera. In: P.A. Lehr (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the Far East of the USSR in Six Volumes, Transliteration of the Russian title: Opredelitel’ nasekomykh Dal’nego Vostoka SSSR v shesti tomakh. Vol. 2. Ravnokrylye i poluzhestkokrylye. In: P.A. Lehr, (ed.). Keys to the Insects of the Far East of the USSR in Six Volume. Nauka, Leningrad.

Asche, M. 1982. Beitrage zur Delphaciden-Fauna der Turkei (Anatolien) (Homoptera Cicadina Delphacidae). Marburger Entomologische Publikationen 1(7): 71-98.

Bartlett, C. R., L. B. O’Brien and S. W. Wilson. 2014. A review of the planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) of the United States. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 50: 1-287.

Ding, J. H. 2006. Fauna Sinica Insecta Vol. 45 Homoptera Delphacidae. Science Press, Beijing, China.

Dlabola, J. 1957. Die Zikaden Afghanistans (Homptera Auchenorrhyncha) nach der Ergebnisse der von Herrn J. Klapperich in den Jahren 1952-1953 nach Afghanistan untergenommenen Expedition. Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 47: 265-303.

Dlabola, J. 1961. Die Zikaden von Zentralasien, Dagestan und Transkaukasien (Homopt. Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 34 (587): 241-358.

Dlabola, J. 1965. Neue Zikadenarten aus Sudeuropa (Homoptera-Auchenorrhyncha). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 36: 657-669.

Dlabola, J. 1965. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 54 Homoptera-Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Faunistica Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 11(100): 79-136.

Dlabola, J. 1970. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen vom Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei. 220: Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 16(1-2): 1-25.

Dlabola, J. 1981. Ergebnisse der Tschechoslowakisch-Iranischen Entomologischen Expeditionen nach dem Iran (1970 und 1973). (Mit Angaben uber einiger Sammelresultate in Anatolien) Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha (2. Teil). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 40: 127-311.

Drosopoulos, S., M. Asche and H. Hoch. 1983. Contribution to the planthopper fauna of Greece. Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae). Annales de l’Institut Phytopathologique Benaki (N.S.) 14: 19-68.

Dubovsky, G. K.  1967. Novye vidy cikadovykh (Auchenorrhyncha) iz Uzbekistana in Poleznye i vrednye bezpozvonochnye zhivotnye Uzbekistana, Tashkent, 56-59. [Calligypona zeravshanica Dubovsky, 1967]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1977. Leaf-hoppers (Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha) from the Mongolian People’s Republic based mainly on materials of the Soviet-Mongolian zoological expeditions (1967-1969). Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 5: 96-195. [In Russian]

Emeljanov, A. F. 1982. Fulgoroidea (Homoptera) collected in the Mongolian People’s Republic by the entomofaunistical group of the Soviet Mongolian complex biological expedition in 1970-1975. Nasekomye Mongolii [Insects of Mongolia] 8: 69-122 [In Russian].

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Fujinuma, Satoshi and M. Hayashi. 2016. New records of seventeen Delphacids (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) from Japan. Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology 22(2): 273-281.

Gębicki, C., D. Świerczewski and J. Szwedo. 2013. Planthoppers and Leafhoppers of Poland (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Systematics, Check-list, Bionomy. The Monograph. Annals of the Upper Silesian Museum, Entomology 21-22: 1-245.

Hamilton, K.G.A. 2002. Homoptera (Insecta) in Pacific Northwest grasslands. Part 1 – New and revised taxa of leafhoppers and planthoppers (Cicadellidae and Delphacidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia 99: 3-31. [comparative note Eurybregma with Chilodelphax]

Hayashi, M. and S. Fujinuma. 2016. Part Fulgoromorpha. p. 323-355. In: Entomological Society of Japan. 2016. Catalogue of the insects of Japan. Volume 4 Paraneoptera (Psocodea, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera), 4. Editorial Committee of Catalogue of the Insects of Japan.

Heydarnejad, J. J.,W. S. Barclay, K. K. Izadpanah, F. R. Hunter and M. J. Gooding. 2006. Molecular characterization of Iranian wheat stripe virus shows its taxonomic position as a distinct species in the genus Tenuivirus. Archives of Virology 151: 217–227. [Re: vector Unkanodes tanasijevici]

Heydarnejad, J. J., K. K. Izadpanah, F. R. Hunter and M. J. Gooding. 2007. Transmission properties of Iranian Wheat Stripe Virus. Australasian Plant Pathology 36(4): 354-357. [Re: vector Unkanodes tanasijevici]

Heydarnejad, J. J. and K. K. Izadpanah. 1992. Isolation and partial characterization of a Tenuivirus from wheat in Iran. Journal of Phytopathology 136(4): 279-287. [Re: vector Unkanodes tanasijevici]

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Hu, Shao-ji , Da-ying Fu, Xiao-jun Liu, Tao Zhao, Zhong-liang Han, Jian-ping Lü,  J.,  Hai-long Wan and Hui Ye Ye. 2012. Diversity of Planthoppers Associated with the Winter Rice Agroecosystems in Southern Yunnan, China. Journal of Insect Science 12: 29. http://doi.org/10.1673/031.012.2901

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